Frequently Asked Questions - All FAQs
Squirt several drops a saline solution into the baby's nose and then suck out as shown. This may be repeated several times if needed. Saline is very safe, even if the baby coughs or gags a little bit. This can be done as about as often as needed (before feedings, before bed).
apply a little K-Y lubricant to the tip of the suppository and gently insert it into the anus until it passes the opening completely, then hold the buttocks together for a moment until the urge to push it back out passes.
Experts such as the A.A.P. recommend not giving cough syrup to children under 6 years of age. This is because:
- There is no evidence that cough syrup helps small children get better
- There is no evidence that cough syrup is safe for small children
- Coughing serves a purpose
What can be given to small children to help with coughs?
- a little honey (over 1 year of age only)
- more liquids to drink (keeps mucous thinner)
- cough drops (for children old enough not to choke on one)
The North Carolina WIC program has an exclusive contract with Abbot (Similac). This contract guarantees the company a large market share and so in exchange the State can buy the formula at a lower price. However, with a prescription from your doctor, WIC will provide some formulas that are medically necessary.
It is not usually needed. In general breast milk or formula is all that your baby needs, even in hot weather.
There is usually no harm in giving a healthy baby a small amount of water (1 ounce or so), but you should ask your doctor first.
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS:
The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics
Committee on Nutrition
Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects.
COMPOSITION OF FRUIT JUICE
Water is the predominant component of fruit juice. Carbohydrates, including sucrose, fructose, glucose, and sorbitol, are the next most prevalent nutrient in juice. The carbohydrate concentration varies from 11 g/100 mL (0.44 kcal/mL) to more than 16 g/100 mL (0.64 kcal/mL). Human milk and standard infant formulas have a carbohydrate concentration of 7 g/100 mL.
ABSORPTION OF CARBOHYDRATE FROM JUICE
The 4 major sugars in juice are sucrose, glucose, fructose, and sorbitol. Sucrose is a disaccharide that is hydrolyzed into 2 component monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, by sucrase present in the small bowel epithelium. Glucose is then absorbed rapidly via an active-carrier-mediated process in the brush border of the small bowel. Fructose is absorbed by a facilitated transport mechanism via a carrier but not against a concentration gradient. In addition, fructose may be absorbed by a disaccharidase-related transport system, because the absorption of fructose is more efficient in the presence of glucose, with maximal absorption occurring when fructose and glucose are present in equimolar concentrations.14 Clinical studies have demonstrated this, with more apparent malabsorption when fructose concentration exceeds that of glucose (eg, apple and pear juice) than when the 2 sugars are present in equal concentrations (eg, white grape juice).15,16 However, when provided in appropriate amounts (10 mL/kg of body weight), these different juices are absorbed equally as well.17 Sorbitol is absorbed via passive diffusion at slow rates, resulting in much of the ingested sorbitol being unabsorbed.18
Malabsorption of carbohydrate in juice, especially when consumed in excessive amounts, can result in chronic diarrhea, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain. Fructose and sorbitol have been implicated most commonly.
Fruit juice offers no nutritional advantage over whole fruit. In fact, fruit juice lacks the fiber of whole fruit. Kilocalorie for kilocalorie, fruit juice can be consumed more quickly than whole fruit. Reliance on fruit juice instead of whole fruit to provide the recommended daily intake of fruits does not promote eating behaviors associated with consumption of whole fruits.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that breast milk be the only nutrient fed to infants until 4 to 6 months of age.36 For mothers who cannot breastfeed or choose not to breastfeed, a prepared infant formula can be used and is a complete source of nutrition. No additional nutrients are needed. There is no nutritional indication to feed juice to infants younger than 6 months. Offering juice before solid foods are introduced into the diet could risk having juice replace breast milk or infant formula in the diet. This can result in reduced intake of protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals such as iron, calcium, and zinc.
It is prudent to give juice only to infants who can drink from a cup (approximately 6 months or older). Teeth begin to erupt at approximately 6 months of age. Dental caries have also been associated with juice consumption.39 Prolonged exposure of the teeth to the sugars in juice is a major contributing factor to dental caries. The AAP and the American Academy of Pedodontics recommendations state that juice should be offered to infants in a cup, not a bottle, and that infants not be put to bed with a bottle in their mouth.
Fruit juice should be used as part of a meal or snack. It should not be sipped throughout the day or used as a means to pacify an unhappy infant or child. Because infants consume fewer than 1600 kcal/d, 4 to 6 oz of juice per day, representing 1 food serving of fruit, is more than adequate. Infants can be encouraged to consume whole fruits that are mashed or pureed.
OLDER CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Juice consumption presents fewer nutritional issues for older children and adolescents, because they consume less of these beverages. Nevertheless, it seems prudent to limit juice intake to two 6-oz servings, or half of the recommended fruit servings each day. It is important to encourage consumption of the whole fruit for the benefit of fiber intake and a longer time to consume the same kilocalories.
Excessive juice consumption and the resultant increase in energy intake may contribute to the development of obesity. One study found a link between juice intake in excess of 12 oz/d and obesity.
Committee on Nutrition, 1999-2000
NO, this is very dangerous and there have been numerous severe mouth burns in infants because of this. Please heat the baby's bottle in warm water, shake well to establish even temperature in the bottle and check a few drops on your wrist.
In an otherwise healthy, term infant, four months is a common time to start cereal. But there is NO hurry! Some people wait until six months. Babies that start solid foods early may be at an increased risk for food allergies.
First start with rice cereal milked with breast milk or your formula. Make it thin and offer it with a spoon, NOT a feeder bottle. If the baby rejects it, back off and try the next week. If she likes it, try making it a bit thicker each time until is has a reasonable texture.
It this is going well, try adding a new fruit or vegetable every 4-5 days, watching for colic, rashes, etc. Wait on meats until at least six months.
Some people set a routine of two meals a day- cereal and fruit in the morning, and maybe a fruit and a vegetable in the evening. Consider three meals after about 6 months or later.
The dessert foods are mostly junk. They often have added sugar and starch which your baby does not need.